What are the frequencies of rh negatives in Ethiopia?

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Ethiopia is one of the most interesting places when it comes to rh negative blood type distributions, simply because the country in itself is so genetically diverse.
Africans in general have a frequency of 1-3% rh negatives, which is very low, but there are some groups worth mentioning that stand out.

1) The Yorubas
2) The Chad/Cameroon area where tribes high in genetic marker R1b and rh negative blood have migrated to once
3) The Ethiopians whose percentage of rh negatives is almost triple that of the continental average

ethiopia rh negative blood

More than 50% of the Ethiopian genepool matches with Semites, Berbers and Europeans and not Sub-Saharans. An 18% J frequency indicates Sumerian ancestry as well. Ancient Mesopotamians migrating throughout the area once have remained genetically present within the Ethiopians telling us just how ancient civilizations once destroyed saw their members move into the “New World”.

According to recent studies, around 8% of Ethiopians are rh negative.

UPDATE

Here are some random things about Ethiopia:

Genetics of the Ethiopians People

The genetic make-up of the Ethiopian people is fascinating. Similar to Mediterranean islands such as Crete, Ethiopia sees a strong preservation of genetic markers known to have been present in the ancient regions of Sumer and Mesopotamia.

Tishkoff et al. (2009) identified fourteen ancestral population clusters which correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic properties in Africa in what was the largest autosomal study of the continent to date.[11] The Burji, Konso and Beta Israel were sampled from Ethiopia. The Afroasiatic speaking Ethiopians sampled were cumulatively found to belong to: 71% in the “Cushitic” cluster, 6% in the “Saharan/Dogon” cluster, 5% in the “Niger Kordofanian” cluster, 3% each in the “Nilo-Saharan” and “Chadic Saharan” cluster, while the balance (12%) of their assignment was distributed among the remnant (9) Associated Ancestral Clusters (AAC’s) found in Sub-Saharan Africa. The “Cushitic” cluster was also deemed “closest to the non-African AACs, consistent with an East African migration of modern humans out of Africa or a back-migration of non-Africans into Saharan and Eastern Africa.”

Wilson et al. (2001), an autosomal DNA study based on cluster analysis that looked at a combined sample of Amhara and Oromo examining a single enzyme variants: drug metabolizing enzyme (DME) loci, found that 62% of Ethiopeans fall into the same cluster of Ashkenazi Jews, Norwegians and Armenians based on that gene. Only 24% of Ethiopians cluster with Bantus and Afro-Caribbeans, 8% with Papua New Guineans, and 6% with Chinese.

The general look of the Ethiopian people has often been discussed and all of it is explained within the gene frequencies at hand.

Looking at the y-DNA, the male genepool
, the strong relationship to the Berbers of Northern Africa dominates:

A composite look at most YDNA studies done so far reveals that,out of a total of 459 males sampled from Ethiopia, approximately 58% of Y-chromosome haplotypes were found to belong to Haplogroup E, of which 71% (41% of total) were characterized by one of its further downstream sub lineage known as E1b1b, while the remainder were mostly characterized by Haplogroup E1b1(x E1b1b,E1b1a), and to a lesser extent Haplogroup E2. With respect to E1b1b, some studies have found that it exists at its highest level among the Oromo, where it represented 62.8% of the haplotypes, while it was found at 35.4% among the Amhara, other studies however have found an almost equal representation of Haplogroup E1b1b at approximately 57% in both the Oromo and the Amhara. The haplogroup (as its predecessor E1b1) is thought to have originated in Ethiopia or elsewhere in the Horn of Africa. About one half of E1b1b found in Ethiopia is further characterized by E1b1b1a (M78), which arose later in north-eastern Africa and then back-migrated to eastern Africa.

Followed by the strong proof of not just Sumerian ancestry, but a strong relationship to Semetic groups:

Haplogroup J has been found at a frequency of approximately 18% in Ethiopians, with a higher prevalence among the Amhara, where it has been found to exist at levels as high as 35%, of which about 94% (17% of total) is of the type J1, while 6% (1% of total) is of J2 type. On the other hand, 26% of the individuals sampled in the Arsi control portion of Moran et al. (2004) were found to belong to Haplogroup J.

The Mesopotamian marker T is present in about 4% of Ethiopians.

The maternal ancestry of Ethiopians is similarly diverse. About half (52.2%) of Ethiopians belongs to mtdna Haplogroups L0, L1, L2, L3, L4, L5, or L6. These haplogroups are generally confined to the African continent. They also originated either in Ethiopia or very near. The other portion of the population belong to Haplogroup N (31%) and Haplogroup M1 (17%).

The two main ethnic groups in Ethiopia are the Oromo and the Amhara.

 Oromo distance running champion Kenenisa Bekele.

Oromo distance running champion Kenenisa Bekele.
 Oromo track and field athlete Maryam Yusuf Jamal.

Oromo track and field athlete Maryam Yusuf Jamal.

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4 Comments

  1. sammy douglas March 3, 2015
  2. Lisa Eklund October 17, 2016
    • rhesusnegatives@gmail.comAuthor November 19, 2016
  3. BENYAM June 27, 2017

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