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The ABO and Rhesus blood group systems remain the most important blood group systems clinically. In order to provide gene frequency values for the ABO and Rh (D) alleles in a healthy infant population in south west Nigeria, 4748 healthy infants were typed for ABO and Rh (D) blood groups over a five year period (1988-1992). Overall, 2575 (54.2%) were blood group O, 1023 (21.6%) were blood group A, 1017 (21.4%) were blood group B and 133 (2.8%) were blood group AB. The distribution of the ABO blood groups did not differ significantly from those expected under the Hardy Weinberg equilibrium (Goodness-of-fit X2 = 6.09, df = 3, p = 0.1075). The proportions of the infants belonging to the various ABO blood groups did not vary significantly over the period of the study (X2 = 14.53, df = 12, p = 0.268). Overall gene frequencies for the O, A and B genes were 0.7398, 0.1305 and 0.1298 respectively. For the Rh (D) gene, 4520 (95.2%) were Rh-positive while 228 (4.8%) were Rh-negative. However, the proportions of Rh (D) negative infants varied significantly over the period of the study, with a particular year (1991) having nearly twice the usual frequency of Rh-negative individuals (X2 = 31.17, df =, p < 0.001). The frequency of the Rh (D) gene was 0.7809. These figures are reported in the hope that they may find some use as reference for studies of ABO blood groups in health and disease, especially since they were obtained in an infant population in which it is expected that selection pressures should not have started to act to any significant extent.

Source: Gene frequencies of ABO and Rh (D) blood group alleles in a healthy infant population in Ibadan, Nigeria

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Phenotype and gene frequencies of ABO and RH (D) systems were studied in 37,846 random blood donors in five zone of Nigeria (South West) (Yoruba)--Zone A, North West (Hausa-Fulani)--Zone B, Plateau (Birom)--Zone C, South East (Igbo)--Zone D and North East (Kanuri)--Zone E). We assessed the micro differences of genetic markers of ABO and RH blood groups between the ethnic groups in the ABO and RH blood group systems. Gene frequencies were ABO *O = 0.7068, ABO *A = 0.1490, ABO *B = 0.1443, RH *D = 0.8150 and results are similar to those earlier reported. Phenotype frequencies of the blood groups were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations, except in two zones B and C where deviation was thought to be due to a high frequency of blood group AB.

Source: Distribution of ABO and RH genes in Nigeria

ABO and Rhesus blood group data were analysed from 43187 blood donors belonging to 34 ethnic groups, predominantly from northern Nigeria. This is the largest series to be reported on from the whole of West Africa. Group O was found in 46.6% of all those examined, but the numbers varied from 33.13% to 64.35% in different ethnic groups. Group A was found in 23.05% and Group B in 25.95%, but again there was much variation in the distribution of the blood groups in different ethnic groups. There was an overall frequency of 3.64% of Rhesus negatives, ranging from 1.4% to 8.72% in different ethnic groups. The results provide basic but useful information concerning many ethnic groups whose blood groups have not previously been reported.

The ABO and Rhesus groups in the north of Nigeria