Pharao Akhenaten, known before the fifth year of his reign as Amenhotep IV, was a Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt who ruled for 17 years and died perhaps in 1336 BC or 1334 BC. He is especially noted for abandoning traditional Egyptian polytheism and introducing worship centered on the Aten, which is sometimes described as monotheistic or henotheistic. An early inscription likens the Aten to the sun as compared to stars, and later official language avoids calling the Aten a god, giving the solar deity a status above mere gods.
He was the father of Pharao Tutankhamun and son of Pharao Amenhotep III and his wife Tiye.
As I have recently posted, Pharao Tutankhamun was blood type A negative. A2 negative to be specific.
KV55 is a tomb in the Valley of the Kings in Egypt. It was discovered by Edward R. Ayrton in 1907 while he was working in the Valley for Theodore M. Davis. It has long been speculated, as well as much-disputed, that the body found in this tomb was that of the famous Pharaoh Akhenaten, who moved the capital to Akhetaten (modern day Amarna). The results of genetic and other scientific tests published in February 2010 have confirmed that the person buried there was both the son of Amenhotep III as well as the father of Tutankhamun. Furthermore, the study established that the age of this person at the time of his death was consistent with that of Akhenaten’s; thereby making it almost certain that it is Akhenaten’s body.
Akhenaten in the typical Amarna period style.
The Younger Lady is the informal name given to a mummy discovered in the Egyptian Valley of the Kings, in tomb KV35 by archeologist Victor Loret in 1898. Through DNA tests this mummy has recently been identified as the mother of the Pharaoh Tutankhamun, and a daughter of Pharaoh Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye. The mummy also has been given the designation KV35YL (“YL” for “Younger Lady”) and 61072, and currently resides in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. It was also speculated to be the remains of Queen Nefertiti.
(See image of The Younger Lady here)
Recently, autosomal and mitochondrial DNA testing have shown conclusively that the mummy is that of a female, and the mother of Tutankhamun. The results also show that she was also a full-sister to her husband, the mummy from KV55, and that they were both the children of Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye.
Colossal granite head of Amenhotep III
There is speculation over the identity of the mummy from KV55, with some Egyptologists, including Zahi Hawass, claiming the mummy is Akhenaten, and others, including anthropologist Joyce Filer, claiming the mummy as Smenkhare. This family relationship would lessen the possibility that the Younger Lady (and, by extension, Tutankhamun’s mother) was either Nefertiti, or Akhenaten’s secondary wife Kiya, because no known artifact accords either wife titles such as “King’s sister” or “King’s Daughter”. The possibility of the younger lady being Sitamun, Isis, or Henuttaneb is considered unlikely, as they were Great Royal Wives of their father Amenhotep III, and had Akhenaten married any of them, they would have taken the place of Nefertiti as the principal queen of Egypt.
More than 55 bone biopsies were used to elucidate the individual relationships of 18th-dynasty individuals, with the result that several of the anonymous mummies or those with suspected identities are now able to be addressed by name. These include KV35EL, who is Tiye, mother of Akhenaten and grandmother of Tutankhamun, and the KV55 mummy, who is most probably Akhenaten, father of Tutankhamun (Figure 2, eAppendix, and online interactive kinship analysis and pedigree). The latter kinship is supported in that several unique anthropological features are shared by the 2 mummies and that the blood group of both individuals is identical.
Here is why Egyptian royals are not always easy to identify based on their sculptures:
It is important to note that ancient Egyptian kings typically had themselves and their families represented in an idealized fashion. A recent radiographic examination of the Nefertiti bust in the Berlin Museum illustrates this clearly by showing that the original face of Nefertiti, present as a thin layer beneath the outer surface, is less beautiful than that represented by the artifact.33 Differences include the angles of the eyelids, creases around the corners of the mouth on the limestone surface, and a slight bump on the ridge of the nose. Thus, especially in the absence of morphological justification, Akhenaten’s choice of a “grotesque” style becomes even more significant.
The Great Royal Wife Tiye, matriarch of the Amarna Dynasty – from the Altes Museum in Berlin, Germany
Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamun’s Family
Kinship of Smenkhkare and Tutankhamen affirmed by Serological Micromethod: Kinship of Smenkhkare and Tutankhamen demonstrated Serologically
More information here … What were the blood types of the Pharaos?
This is a little bit over the European average:
According to this study, Serbs are
0–38%, A–42%, B–15%, AB–5%
84% Rh+ and 16% Rh-
Genetic studies on Serbs
Y-chromosomal haplogroups identified among the Serbs from Serbia and Bosnia-Herzegovina are the following: I2a-P37.2 (with frequencies of 29.20 and 30.90%, respectively), E1b1b1a2-V13 (20.35 and 19.80%), R1a1-M17 (15.93 and 13.60%), R1b1b2-M269 (10.62 and 6.20%), K*-M9 (7.08 and 7.40%), J2b-M102 (4.40 and 6.20%), I1-M253 (5.31 and 2.5%), F*-M89 (4.9%, only in B-H), J2a1b1-M92 (2.70%, only in Serbia), and several other uncommon haplogroups with lesser frequencies.
I2a-P37.2 is the most prevailing haplogroup, accounting for nearly one-third of Serbian Y-chromosomes. Its frequency peaks in Herzegovina (64%)
E1b1b1a2-V13 is the second most prevailing haplogroup, accounting for one-fifth of Serbian Y chromosomes. Its frequency peaks in Albania at 24% (among Kosovo Albanians it is 44% due to genetic drift), and is also high among Greeks, Romanians, Macedonian Slavs, and Bulgarians. It is rare among other Slavs, and moderate frequencies of it are found in southern Italy and Anatolia. E-V13 probably originated in the southern Balkans about 9000 ybp. Its ancestral haplogroup, E1b1b1a-M78, could be of a northeast African origin.
J2b-M102 and J2a1b1-M92 have low frequencies among the Serbs (6–7% combined). Various other lineages of haplogroup J2-M172 are found throughout the Balkans, all with low frequencies. Haplogroup J and all its descendants originated in the Middle East. It is proposed that the Balkan Mesolithic foragers, bearers of I-P37.2 and E-V13, adopted farming from the initial J2 agriculturalists who colonized the region about 7000 to 8000 ybp, transmitting the Neolithic cultural package.
Famous Serbs include:
Many believe he was probably rh negative. I myself do not know. If you are one of the many who is interested in Nikola Tesla, you can download his autobiography for free:
Nkola Tesla: My Inventions
Or watch the video:
Descending from Berbers and Basques, the Guanches of the Canary Islands do also have a large percentage of rh negative blood. Looking back further into the history of the Guanches, you will find that mtDNA haplogroup U subclade U6b1 (which is Canarian-specific), is the most common mtDNA haplogroup found in aboriginal Guanche archaeological burial sites. Today the Guanches are considered extinct, but of course, their DNA lives on in the current population of the Canary Islands.
So yes, you have heard correctly: The Guanches as an ethnic group are in fact extinct. But just like Neanderthal DNA continues to live in Europeans, regardless how small the percentage, so does the current population continue to give us an insight over who the Guanches once were.
Here are a few previous articles compiled since 2010:
People with Rhesus Negative Bloodtype
Rh Negative Tribes
Canary Island Guanches
Image source: Historias de guanches
Here are some other articles highlighting a few attributes of the Guanches:
According to the tales of the European conquerors, the Guanches were a “highly beautiful white race, tall, muscular, and with a great many blondes amongst their numbers” Their great height must be understood in relation to the average height of Europeans at that time. As for the presence of blondes, even today after many centuries of invasions and intermarriage, a heritage of blond hair and blue eyes is easily found among modern day Berbers of the Atlas region in Africa.
Source: Mathilda’s Anthropology Blog.
This part is interesting. If you go to old medieval buildings in Europe, you will realize the doors were around 5 feet high, because people in Europe back then were a lot shorter than the day. It doesn´t seem like Egyptians for example were much different in height than today looking at 5´9´´ being a quite common measure for the mummies.
On other sites there is confusion:
The origins of the initial inhabitants of Lanzarote and the rest of the Canary Islands, the Guanches, remains something of a mystery. Some historians believe the Guanches, a cave-dwelling Cromagnon race, were of Egyptian origin because of the similarity in their methods of mummifying corpses. Others favour the more romantic view that the Guanches were indigenous, the remnant race of the lost continent of Atlantis.
Here are some details in regards to official studies.
Haplogroup U is linked to many areas.
U1 – appears mostly in the middle east
U2 – Most commonly South Asia
U3 – is found in Romani Spanish
U4 – Widely distributed in Europe
U5 – Oldest DNA found in Homo-sapiens in Europe The Chedder Man.
U6 – Found in North Africa and the Canary Islands
U7 – Found in 10% of Iranians
U8 – Found specifically in Basques, people near France and Spain
Haplogroup K is a descendant of U
An autosomal study in 2011 found an average Northwest African influence of about 17% in Canary Islanders with a wide interindividual variation ranging from 0% to 96%. According to the authors, the substantial Northwest African ancestry found for Canary Islanders supports that, despite the aggressive conquest by the Spanish in the 15th century and the subsequent immigration, genetic footprints of the first settlers of the Canary Islands persist in the current inhabitants. Paralleling mtDNA findings, the largest average Northwest African contribution was found for the samples from La Gomera.
According to a recent study by Fregel et al. 2009, in spite of the geographic nearness between the Canary Islands and Morocco, the genetic heritage of the Canary islands male lineages, is mainly from European origin. Indeed, nearly 67% of the haplogroups resulting from are Euro–Eurasian (R1a(2.76%), R1b (50.62%), I (9.66%) and G (3.99%)). Unsurprisingly the Spanish conquest brought the genetic base of the current male population of the Canary Islands. Nevertheless, the second most important Haplogroup family is from Northern Africa, Near and Middle East. E1b1b (14% including 8.30% of the typical berber haplogroup E-M81), E1b1a and E1a (1.50%), J (14%) and T (3%) Haplogroups are present at a rate of 33%. Even if a part of these “eastern” haplogroups were introduced by the Spanish too, we can suppose that a good portion of this rate was already there at the time of the conquest. According to this same study the presence of autochthonous North African E-M81 lineages, and also other relatively abundant markers (E-M78 and J-M267) from the same region in the indigenous Guanche population, “strongly points to that area (North Africa) as the most probable origin of the Guanche ancestors”. In this study, Fregel et al. estimated that, based on Y-chromosome and mtDNA haplogroup frequencies, the relative female and male indigenous Guanche contributions to the present-day Canary Islands populations was respectively of 41.8% and 16.1%.
Furthermore, the Guanches mummified their dead, and this material can be studied by the researchers, particularly concerning traits such as blood type and racial characteristics. This strange mode of disposing of the dead — which the Guanches shared with the Polynesians, the Egyptians and the Mayas — has been mooted out by several authorities as indicating a close affinity among these distant nations. The Guanches also left some sort of alphabetic inscriptions which have yet to be studied, along with their pottery and peculiar ruins. All in all, the archaeology of this most remarkable people is far from satisfactorily researched.
About their language:
Guanche is an extinct language that was spoken by the Guanches of the Canary Islands until the 16th or 17th century. It is only known today through a few sentences and individual words recorded by early travellers, supplemented by several placenames, as well as some words assimilated into the Canary Islanders’ Spanish. Relationships with other languages have therefore been difficult to determine with certainty; however, it is almost certainly Afro-Asiatic, and many linguists consider Guanche to likely be one of, or to be related to, the Berber languages.
One of the biggest mistakes often made is to assume that a blood type or a gene originates where it´s most frequent.
Looking at the high frequency of haplogroup J individuals on the Greek island of Crete for example hardly proves that it came from there. It rather pinpoints that a genetic trait has been well preserved due to the isolation of an island.
Same as the high frequency of rh negatives doesn´t mean that the blood factor originated in the Pyrenees.
So why do so many people believe that the rare Bombay Blood Group comes from Bombay?
One thing to look at is the broader region and then extend the circle to contain the fertile crescent.
Could it be that there was a high frequency of Bombay blood in Mesopotamia or Sumer?
(Source for image here)
Here is what we need to keep in mind:
When naming the ABO system, we are including 2 antigens and one group that is by definition “without” (O was named by Karl Landsteiner for the German word for without: “Ohne”),
But the O blood group is not without antigens as we now know. It is without the A or the B antigen, but
group O individuals express H antigen, the precursor of A and B antigens. H antigen is also expressed to a smaller extent in A and B blood cells but is not expressed in the rare ‘Bombay’ population.
This of course now reads as an error, as it would be considered had all antigens been discovered around the same time.
Rather than naming the HH present in the most common ABOs, we pintpoint h/h which highlights the deficiency thereof or Oh, a blood type O without the H antigen.
So in transfusion settings, you are required as an Oh to also have a blood donor lacking the H antigen, another Oh.
The Oh blood factor is found in 1 of 10,000 individuals in India and 1 in a million people in Europe.
So imagine being type Oh in Europe and needing a transfusion. And what about being rh negative on top of that (Oh-)?
Only less than 10 people worldwide are knowing to be such.
Click the image above if you are on of the few. You may need their help and someone may need yours.
So back to the origin of Bombay Blood:
Patients who test as type O may have the Bombay phenotype if they have inherited two recessive alleles of the H gene, (their blood group is Oh and their genotype is hh), and so they do not produce the H carbohydrate that is the precursor to the A and B antigens. It then no longer matters whether the A or B enzymes are present or not, as neither A nor B antigen can be produced since the precursor antigen H is not present. Despite the designation O, Oh negative is not a sub-group of any other group. Because both parents must carry this recessive allele to transmit this blood type to their children, the condition mainly occurs in small closed-off communities where there is a good chance of both parents of a child either being of Bombay type, or being heterozygous for the h gene allele and so carrying the Bombay characteristic as recessive. Other examples may include noble families, which are inbred due to custom rather than local genetic variety.
This would explain why 1 in 33 incidents of Bombay Blood Group (0H) is found among the Kutia Kondh tribe in India.
So let me use this example to highlight something else:
I have read some claims that the rh negative blood factor and red hair might go extinct.
Bombay blood is recessive. It means both parents need to carry the gene in order for a child to be Oh.
If only 1 in 250,000 people worldwide is Oh and the blood type is not extinct yet, then one must wonder who those people are making such claims.
So where does the rare Bombay blood group originate?
This is something I will be looking into a lot more, whether I get the answers or not. But one thing I needed to do first is to bring up again that when looking for the origin of a gene, assuming the area where it´s most frequent would be the birthplace is wrong. Even when it is named after that place.
I myself will be looking more at the birthplace of civilization as there has been a migration from that region to India a long time ago which makes India a country where the origin of Mesopotamia, Sumer and Babylon may have been preserved recessively, even though dominated by the genes from that region.
Which makes it harder for the people currently Oh showing the traits of the population originally without the antigen.
The search continues …
More here: The Bombay Blood Group
The Hh blood group
Rhesus Negative Blood Factor Origins: Mesopotamia
Have you taken a DNA test with 23andme.com?
Here is a question that has been bothering me:
First … most people do not know their blood types.
Secondly … when asking people for their blood types, they immediately get that creeped out look on their face.
And then they ask “Why?” and at that moment you wished you hadn´t asked.
So here are some suggestions on how to ask people for their blood types without asking directly.
1) Find a way to mention yours. Blood donation is a topic of interest. “I should be donating blood, but my veins are too small” can also do if you´re not a donor yourself. When asked why, you can tell them about yours being rare.
2) When at a get together eating some food or drinking a beverage, mentioning “This cheese is supposed to be good for me according to my blood type” can open doors. It works a lot better amongst women though. Guys mentioning watching their weight or being overly health conscious can unfortunately also creep out some (rediculous, yet true).
3) Just do what I do. Talk for 10 minutes and I bet if you stand there waiting for the right moment, like a tiger watching his prey, someone will mention something that can open a door. Even if the opening is small. Put your foot right in, then the other and stay there.
“Well, we (meaning whatever country they are from) are in the group with England”.
“In the worldcup in Brazil?”
“Should be an awesome worldcup. I heard that Brazilians have the highest frequencies of rh negative people worldwide”.
Well, it is getting lame. So I hope some of you can think up something better.
Please continue here …
Do you ask people about their blood types?